"Physiology and Neurobiology of Stress and Adaptation: Central Role of the Brain" by Bruce S. McEwen.Physiological Review 87: 873–904, 2007.

Before and After the Trauma Bay: The Prevention of Violent Injury Among Youth.” Rebecca Cunningham, Lynda Knox, Joel Fein, Stephanie Harrison, Keri Frisch, Maureen Walton, Rochelle Dicker, Deane Calhoun, Marla Becker, Stephen W. Hargarten. Annals of Emergency Medicine - April 2009 (Vol. 53, Issue 4, Pages 490-500.

"Hospital-Based Violence Intervention Programs Work." Cooper, Carnell MD; Eslinger, Dawn M. MS; Stolley, Paul D. MD. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care: September 2006 - Volume 61 - Issue 3 - pp 534-540.

"Reinjury Prevention for Youth Presenting with Violence-Related Injuries: A Training Curriculum for Trauma Centers." Rebecca Cunningham MD and Lyndee Knox PHD, Southern California Center of Academic Excellence on Youth Violence Prevention in Collaboration with the University of Michigan Department of Emergency Medicine Injury Center. Winter 2008.

"Witnessed Community and Parental Violence in Relation to Substance Use and Delinquency in a National Sample of Adolescents." Heidi M. Zinzow, Kenneth J. Ruggiero, Rochelle F. Hanson, Daniel W. Smith, Benjamin E. Saunders, and Dean G. Kilpatrick. Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 22, No. 6, December 2009, pp. 525–533.
Guilt and posttraumatic stress symptoms in child victims of interpersonal violence.” Kletter H, Weems CF, Carrion VG. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2009 Jan;14(1):71-83.


Hospital-Based Violence Intervention Programs:

Wraparound Project (San Francisco, CA)
Out of the Crossfire, Inc. (Cincinatti, OH)
Project Ujima (Milwaukee, WI)
Violence Intervention Advocacy Project (Boston, Springfield, Brockton, Lawrence, Worcester, MA)


The Sanctuary Model©, developed by Dr. Sandra Bloom:
The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study - Groundbreaking study revealing the relationship of childhood adversity to some of the leading causes of death in adults
National Child Traumatic Stress Network:
The National Center for Trauma-Informed Care (a program of SAMHSA):
The National Trauma Consortium:
Restorative Resources and Trauma Resources International
Dr. Bruce Perry's Child Trauma Academy

Healthcare Disparities:

Unnatural Causes: Is Inequality Making us Sick?


RACE – Are We So Different?